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Vingt Et Un Translations & Examples VideoLouisiana Rounders - Vingt Et Un Ans (Twenty One Years) - (sample)
One hundred and twenty - one million children, 65 million of whom are girls, have never been to school. Twenty - one members are to be elected according to the following pattern:.
Twenty - one members of the Committee attended the exceptional session. Twenty - one completed questionnaires were submitted to the organizers.
Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf Twenty - first session. Context sentences Context sentences for "vingt-et-un" in English These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate.
Synonyms Synonyms French for "vingt-et-un":. French black-jack. Similar translations Similar translations for "vingt-et-un" in English.
English and. English a score twenty. The goal was to score 21 points, or have the greater number of points to win after the three rounds to win.
In each round, a category was given; each category had eleven questions of increasing difficulty, ranging in value from 1 to 11 one point being the easiest, eleven being the hardest , so the higher the value, the more difficult the questions.
All questions had four possible choices. The player who's booth was on would choose a point value to play for, and then a question worth that value was asked by the host.
A correct answer awarded the points, but a wrong answer lost a life. Each player had three lives per game. The players were not aware of their opponent's score.
After two rounds, the two booths were then open and they were given the option to stop the game. Known initially as Vingt-Un in all those countries, it developed into Pontoon in Britain after the First World War and blackjack in Canada and the United States in the late 19th century, where the legalisation of gambling increased its popularity.
The game is first mentioned by name in a Spanish dictionary where, under the entry for "card" carta , it mentions the game of Ventiuno "twenty-one".
Cervantes was a gambler , and the main characters of his tale " Rinconete y Cortadillo ", from Novelas Ejemplares , are a couple of cheats working in Seville.
They are proficient at cheating at Veintiuna sic , and state that the object of the game is to reach 21 points without going over and that the ace scores 1 or The game is played with the Spanish baraja deck.
This short story was written between and , implying that ventiuna had been played in Castile since the beginning of the 17th century or earlier.
The first record of the game in France occurs in in the Mercure de France , which describes Vingt-Un as fashionable, but "very old", referring to Cervantes' novella.
Other early accounts indicate that the game was new to France suggesting that it took root there from the midth century.
In Britain, the game is also recorded in the s and s, for example in a comedy entitled Dissipation ,  but the first rules appear in the edition of Hoyle's under the name of Vingt-Un.
Known in the German-speaking world as Siebzehn und Vier "Seventeen and Four" , Einundzwanzig "Twenty-One" , Hop p sen , Rathen or, frequently, by its original French names of Vingt-Un or Vingt-et-Un , the game had spread to Prussia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire there by the second half of the 18th century,  and had become a universally common game of chance by There is a popular myth that, when Vingt-Un was introduced into the United States in the early s - other sources say during the First World War and still others the s - gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players' interest.
One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black jack either the jack of clubs or the jack of spades.
This hand was called a "blackjack", and it is claimed that the name stuck to the game even though the ten-to-one bonus was soon withdrawn.
French card historian, Thierry Depaulis has recently debunked this story, showing that the name blackjack was first given to the game by prospectors during the Klondike Gold Rush , the bonus being the usual ace and any point card.
Since the term "blackjack" also refers to the mineral zincblende , which was often associated with gold or silver deposits, he suggests that the name was transferred by prospectors to the top bonus in the game.
He was unable to find any historical evidence for a special bonus for having the combination of an ace with a black jack.
Whilst there are numerous variants of Twenty-One, the following general rules apply. The game has a banker and a variable number of punters.
The role of banker rotates around the players, except for casino games where the banker's role is held permanently by a member of the casino staff.
The banker deals two cards, face down, to each punter. Bets are placed either before receiving the cards or after receiving and viewing the first card.
The punters, in turn, having picked up and examined both cards announce whether they will stay with the cards they have or receive another card from the banker free.
Some games also allow a punter to raise his stake and 'buy' another card. The aim is to score exactly twenty-one points or to come as close to twenty-one as possible, based on the card values dealt.
If a player exceeds twenty-one, they lose their stake. Once every punter has either announced they will stay with their cards or exceeded twenty-one, the dealer takes his turn.
Anyone who achieves twenty-one in his first two cards has a 'natural vingt-un', 'pontoon' or 'blackjack', depending on the game variant, which wins double.
The following sections give an outline of the regional variants of Twenty-One beginning with the early rules in France which are probably close to the original game.
The earliest rules printed anywhere appear in Hoyle's Games Improved , published in London in The following is a summary: .
The first dealer is chosen by any agreed method, e. It is likely that deal and play were clockwise and that players staked a fixed amount before the deal, but the rules are vague on these points.
The dealer deals two cards to each player, one at a time. He then asks each player, in rotation and beginning with eldest hand to his left , whether he wants to 'stand' or choose another card.